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(Ebook) Intelligent Vehicle Technology and Trends
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(Ebook) Intelligent Vehicle Technology and Trends

Contents:
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1.1 Machine Intelligence on the Road
1.2 Definition of Intelligent Vehicles
1.3 Overview of Chapters
CHAPTER 2
Goals and Visions for the Future
2.1 Government Safety Goals 8
2.1.1 Asia-Pacific Region 8
2.1.2 Europe 10
2.1.3 North America 10
2.2 Visions for the Future 11
2.2.1 Europe’s eSafety Vision 12
2.2.2 Sweden’s Vision Zero 13
2.2.3 ITS America’s Zero Fatalities Vision 13
2.2.4 ITS Evolution in Japan 14
2.2.5 The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (TNO) 15
2.2.6 France 18
2.2.7 The Cybercar Approach 21
2.2.8 Vision 2030 21
2.3 Summary 22
CHAPTER 3
IV Application Areas 25
3.1 Convenience Systems 25
3.1.1 Parking Assist 26
3.1.2 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) 26
3.1.3 Low-Speed ACC 27
3.1.4 Lane-Keeping Assistance (LKA) 27
3.1.5 Automated Vehicle Control 28
vii
3.2 Safety Systems 28
3.2.1 Assisting Driver Perception 29
3.2.2 Crash Prevention 30
3.2.3 Degraded Driving 32
3.2.4 Precrash 33
3.2.5 External Vehicle Speed Control (EVSC) 33
3.3 Productivity Systems 34
3.3.1 Truck Applications 34
3.3.2 Transit Bus Applications 34
3.4 Traffic-Assist Systems 35
3.4.1 Vehicle Flow Management (VFM) 36
3.4.2 Traffic-Responsive Adaptation 36
3.4.3 Traffic Jam Dissipation 36
3.4.4 Start-Up Assist 37
3.4.5 Cooperative ACC (C-ACC) 37
3.4.6 Platooning 37
CHAPTER 4
Government-Industry R&D Programs and Strategies 39
4.1 Asia-Pacific 39
4.1.1 Australia 39
4.1.2 China 40
4.1.3 Japan 42
4.1.4 South Korea 44
4.2 European Programs 45
4.2.1 Pan-European Activities Conducted Through the EC 45
4.2.2 The DeuFrako Program 51
4.2.3 French Programs 52
4.2.4 IV Research in Germany 53
4.2.5 Activities in the Netherlands 55
4.2.6 IVSS in Sweden 57
4.2.7 United Kingdom 58
4.3 United States 59
4.3.1 U.S. DOT 59
4.3.2 IV R&D at the State Level 63
4.3.3 IV R&D Under Way by the U.S. Department of Defense 65
4.4 Contrasts Across IV Programs Worldwide 65
CHAPTER 5
IV Priorities and Strategies for the Vehicle Industry 69
5.1 Automobile Manufacturers 70
5.1.1 BMW 70
5.1.2 DaimlerChrysler 70
5.1.3 Fiat 73
5.1.4 Ford 73
viii Contents
5.1.50 General Motors 74
5.1.60 Honda 76
5.1.70 Mitsubishi 77
5.1.80 Nissan 77
5.1.90 PSA Peugeot Citroën 78
5.1.10 Renault 78
5.1.11 Subaru 79
5.1.12 Toyota 79
5.1.13 Volkswagen (VW) 81
5.1.14 Volvo Global Trucks 81
5.2 Automotive Industry Suppliers 81
5.2.10 Aisin Group 82
5.2.20 Bosch 82
5.2.30 Continental 83
5.2.40 Delphi 83
5.2.50 Denso 86
5.2.60 Hella 87
5.2.70 IBEO Automobile Sensor 87
5.2.80 MobilEye 88
5.2.90 Siemens VDO Automotive 89
5.2.10 TRW’s Three-Phase Roadmap 89
5.2.11 Valeo: Seeing and Being Seen 90
5.2.12 Visteon 91
5.3 Automotive Industry Summary 92
CHAPTER 6
Lateral/Side Sensing and Control Systems 97
6.1 Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) 98
6.1.1 LDWS Approaches 98
6.1.2 LDWS on the Market 101
6.1.3 LDWS Evaluations 104
6.2 Road Departure Warning Systems (RDWS) 106
6.2.1 Curve Speed Warning 106
6.2.2 U.S. DOT Road Departure Warning Field Operational
Testing 107
6.3 Lane Keeping Assist Systems (LKA) 109
6.3.1 System Approaches 109
6.3.2 LKA Systems on the Market 111
6.4 Parallel Parking Assist 112
6.5 Side Sensing: Blind Spot Monitoring and Lane Change
Assistance (LCA) 113
6.5.1 Radar-Based Systems 113
6.5.2 Vision-Based Systems 114
6.5.3 Ultrasonic-Based Side Object Sensing For Transit Buses 115
6.6 Comprehensive Lateral Control Assistance (LCA) 115
6.6.1 INVENT: LCA 115
Contents ix
6.6.2 PReVENT 116
6.7 Rollover Collision Avoidance (RCA) for Heavy Trucks 116
6.8 Summary 118
CHAPTER 7
Longitudinal Sensing and Control Systems 121
7.1 Rear Sensing for Parking 122
7.1.1 System Description 122
7.1.2 Market Aspects 123
7.2 Night Vision 123
7.2.1 System Description 123
7.2.2 Night Vision Systems 124
7.2.3 Market Aspects 125
7.3 Adaptive Front Lighting (AFS) 125
7.3.1 System Description 125
7.3.2 System Descriptions 126
7.3.3 Market Aspects 126
7.4 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) 127
7.4.1 ACC Sensor Technologies and Trade-offs 127
7.4.2 High-Speed ACC 129
7.4.3 Low-Speed ACC 132
7.4.4 Full-Speed Range ACC 134
7.5 Safe Gap Advisory 134
7.5.1 System Description 134
7.5.2 Research and Evaluation 134
7.6 Forward Collision Warning 135
7.6.1 System Description 135
7.6.2 Market Aspects 136
7.6.3 Evaluation of FCW: The ACAS Field Operational Test 137
7.7 Rear Impact Countermeasures 140
7.8 Precrash Brake Assist 140
7.8.1 System Description 140
7.8.2 Market Aspects 141
7.9 Forward Crash Mitigation (FCM) and Avoidance—Active Braking 141
7.9.1 System Description 141
7.9.2 Market Aspects 141
7.9.3 FCM Research 143
7.9.4 Forward Collision Avoidance 143
7.10 Pedestrian Detection and Avoidance 144
7.10.1 System Description 144
7.10.2 Market Aspects 144
7.10.3 Ongoing R&D 145
7.11 Next Generation Sensors 151
7.11.1 Next Generation Sensors—Radar 151
7.11.2 Next Generation Sensors—Laser Scanners 153
7.12 Summary and Observations 155
CHAPTER 8
Integrated Lateral and Longitudinal Control and Sensing Systems 159
8.1 Sensor Fusion 160
8.1.1 CARSENSE for Urban Environments 160
8.1.2 Data Fusion Approach in INVENT 163
8.1.3 ProFusion 165
8.2 Applications 167
8.2.1 Autonomous Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA) 168
8.2.2 Bus Transit Integrated Collision Warning System 169
8.2.3 Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) Program 170
8.2.4 PReVENT Integrated Systems 172
8.3 User and Societal Assessments of Integrated Systems 173
8.4 Summary 174
CHAPTER 9
Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Systems (CVHS) 177
9.1 Wireless Communications as a Foundation for Cooperative Systems 178
9.1.1 Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) 180
9.1.2 Transceiver Development for North American DSRC 185
9.1.3 Wireless Access Vehicular Environment (WAVE) 186
9.1.4 Continuous Air-Interface for Long and Medium (CALM)
Distance Communications 186
9.1.5 Intervehicle Communications Using Ad Hoc Network
Techniques 186
9.1.6 Radar-Based Intervehicle Communications 189
9.1.7 Millimeter-Wave (MMW)–Based Intervehicle Communications 190
9.2 Digital Maps and Satellite Positioning in Support of CVHS 191
9.2.1 Map-Enabled Safety Applications 192
9.2.2 ActMAP: Real-Time Map Updating 193
9.3 Cooperative Applications: Longitudinal Advisories 194
9.3.1 Japanese Operational Testing 194
9.3.2 Wireless Local Danger Warnings 195
9.4 Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) 195
9.4.1 ISA in Sweden 196
9.4.2 LAVIA: The French Project of Adaptive Speed Limiter 196
9.4.3 ISA-UK 197
9.4.4 PROSPER 198
9.4.5 Australian ISA Research 199
9.5 Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA) 199
9.5.1 ICA Research in Japan 199
9.5.2 ICA Work in the United States 200
9.5.3 Cooperative ICA R&D in Europe 202
9.6 Cooperative Approaches for Vulnerable Road Users 203
9.7 CVHS as an Enabler for Traffic Flow Improvement 204
9.7.1 Traffic Assistance Strategies for Improving Stable Flow 205
9.7.2 Traffic Assistance Strategies To Prevent Flow Breakdown 208
9.7.3 Traffic Assistance Strategies Within Congestion 209
9.7.4 STARDUST Analyses 211
9.8 Business Case and Deployment Projects 212
9.8.1 Automotive Deployment for Cooperative Systems 212
9.8.2 Commercial Telematics CVHS Activities 213
9.8.3 Public-Sector CVHS Deployment Initiatives 214
9.8.4 U.K. CVHS Study 217
9.8.5 CVHS Deployment Research Initiatives 218
9.9 Summary 220
CHAPTER 10
Fully Automated Vehicles 225
10.1 Passenger Car Automation 226
10.1.1 Highway Automation 226
10.1.2 Low-Speed Automation 230
10.1.3 Ongoing Work in Vehicle-Highway Automation 231
10.1.4 User Attitudes Toward Automated Vehicle Operations 232
10.2 Truck Automation 233
10.2.1 Electronic Tow-Bar Operations and Driver Assistance 233
10.2.2 Truck Automation for Long-Haul Application:
Deployment Studies 235
10.2.3 Automation in Short-Haul Drayage Operations 238
10.2.4 Insertion of Automated Truck Lanes in Urban Areas 239
10.3 Automated Public Transport 240
10.3.1 ParkShuttle 240
10.3.2 Intelligent Multimode Transit System (IMTS) 241
10.3.3 Phileas 242
10.3.4 Bus Platooning R&D at PATH 243
10.4 CyberCars 244
10.5 Automated Vehicle for Military Operations 248
10.6 Deployment Options 249
CHAPTER 11
Extending the Information Horizon Through Floating Car Data Systems 253
11.1 FCD Applications 254
11.2 Policy Issues Relating to FCD Techniques 254
11.3 Technical Issues 256
11.3.1 Data Reporting 256
11.3.2 Data Dissemination 257
11.3.3 Data Cleansing 257
11.4 FCD Activity in Japan 257
11.4.1 Road Performance Assessments 257
11.4.2 Taxi-Based Probe Experiments 257
11.4.3 Traffic Condition Detection Using Efficient Data Reporting
11.4.3 Techniques 258
11.5 European FCD Activity 258
11.5.1 Commercial FCD Services 259
11.5.2 Research and Development Toward Next Generation
FCD Services 261
11.6 FCD Projects in the United States 265
11.6.1 U.S. DOT VII 265
11.6.2 I-Florida 265
11.6.3 Ford FCD Experiments 265
11.6.4 Indiana Real-Time Transportation Infrastructure Information
System 267
11.7 Overall FCD Processing Picture 267
11.8 Looking Forward 268
CHAPTER 12
IVs as Human-Centered Systems 271
12.1 Driver Perception and Acceptance 272
12.1.1 Perceived Positives and Negatives of ADAS Systems 273
12.1.2 User Perceptions Assessed in STARDUST 274
12.1.3 User Perceptions of ACC Users 275
12.2 Driverology 275
12.2.1 Driving Simulators 275
12.2.2 Test Track Evaluations 276
12.2.3 U.S. DOT Naturalistic Driving Study 276
12.2.4 Driver Performance in Traffic 277
12.3 Driver-Vehicle Interfacing 277
12.3.1 Driver Warning Modes 277
12.3.2 Key Factors in Successful DVI 278
12.3.3 Learnability of ADAS 278
12.4 Driver-Vehicle Symbiosis 280
12.4.1 ACC Systems 281
12.4.2 Levels of Human-Machine Cooperation 281
12.4.3 Driver Vigilance with Advanced Assistance Systems 281
12.5 Driver Monitoring and Support 283
12.5.1 Drowsy Driver Detection and Countermeasures 284
12.5.2 Driver Workload Support 286
12.5.3 Older Driver Support 287
12.6 Summary 287
CHAPTER 13
IV Systems Interacting with Society and the Market 291
13.1 Societal Considerations 292
13.2 Market Issues 294
13.2.1 “Safety Sells” 296
13.2.2 Market Introduction Factors 296
13.2.3 Promoting Product Awareness 297
13.2.4 Incentives to Accelerate Market Uptake 298
13.3 Legal Issues 300
13.3.1 Tort Liability in the United States 301
13.3.2 Legal Issues in Europe 302
13.4 Government Policy and Regulation 303
13.4.1 Vehicle Systems Regulation 304
13.4.2 Frequency Spectrum Regulation 305
13.5 Addressing Nontechnical Market Barriers 305
13.5.1 European RESPONSE Program 306
13.5.2 INVENT 307
13.5.3 ITS America Effort 308
13.6 Code of Practice (COP) for ADAS Design and Testing 309
13.6.1 Defining Requirements 309
13.6.2 Processes 310
13.6.3 Human Factors in the CoP 310
13.7 International Standards 311
13.8 Summary 312
CHAPTER 14
Looking Forward: Enabling Technologies and Future Trends 315
14.1 Enabling Technologies 315
14.2 Looking Forward 317
CHAPTER 15
Conclusion

Notes:
  • Ebook dalam Bahasa Inggris
  • Format pdf
  • Dikirim via email (Gratis Ongkir)



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